The Allies adapted blitzkrieg to their own advantage by the end of World War II, including in the Battle of Stalingrad and the European operations commanded by U.S. General George Patton in 1944. Hitler had intended for a rapid unlimited war to occur much later than 1939, but the Third Reich's aggressive foreign policy forced the Nazi state into war before it was ready. The term blitzkrieg is used with reference to German efforts to win a quick victory in the First World War but is not associated with the use of armoured, mechanised or air forces. Cookies help us deliver our services. [a], In 2005, the historian Karl-Heinz Frieser summarized blitzkrieg as the result of German commanders using the latest technology in the most beneficial way according to traditional military principles and employing "the right units in the right place at the right time". [103] The Soviets made a concerted effort to disguise their knowledge of German plans and the extent of their own defensive preparations, and the German commanders still hoped to achieve operational surprise when the attack commenced. The word, meaning "lightning war" or "lightning attack" in its strategic sense describes a series of quick and decisive short battles to deliver a knockout blow to an enemy state before it could fully mobilize. Pronunciation of blitzkrieg with 1 audio pronunciation, 1 meaning, 1 translation and more for blitzkrieg. [90] The French and British frequently used their tanks in the dispersed role of infantry support rather than concentrating force at the point of attack, to create overwhelming firepower. The tactical meaning of blitzkrieg involves a coordinated military effort by tanks, mobilized infantry, artillery and aircraft, to create an overwhelming local superiority in combat power, to overwhelm an enemy and break through its lines. In recent years historians have uncovered that Liddell Hart distorted and falsified facts to make it appear as if his ideas were adopted. Where the ability for rapid movement across "tank country" was not possible, armoured penetrations often were avoided or resulted in failure. The French president of the Ministerial Council, Reynaud, attributed the collapse in a speech on 21 May 1940: The truth is that our classic conception of the conduct of war has come up against a new conception. Most famously, blitzkrieg describes the successful tactics used by Nazi Germany in the early years of World War II, as German forces swept through Poland, Norway, Belgium, Holland and France with astonishing speed and force. Richard Overy pointed out some 23 percent of German output was military by 1939. The church was destroyed in the Blitz. Find more German words at wordhippo.com! Blitzkrieg - Arabic meanings: الهجوم - Definition & Synonyms English to Arabic dictionary gives you the best and accurate Arabic translation and meanings of Blitzkrieg. Translations of blitzkrieg from English to German and index of blitzkrieg in the bilingual analogic dictionary If it were instead hilly, wooded, marshy, or urban, armour would be vulnerable to infantry in close-quarters combat and unable to break out at full speed. To obtain the best co-operation between all arms, emphasis was placed on detailed planning, rigid control and adherence to orders. blitzkrieg (n.) "rapid attack," 1939, from German Blitzkrieg, from Krieg "war" (see kriegspiel) + Blitz "lightning," from Middle High German blicze, back-formation from bliczen "to flash," from Old High German blecchazzen "to flash, lighten" (8c. In the stunned aftermath of France’s fall, both Nazi propaganda and Western media attributed Germany’s success to the revolutionary new form of warfare known as blitzkrieg. How to use blitzkrieg in a sentence. In this way they depleted German combat power even as German forces advanced. Though German fighter presence over Normandy increased over the next days and weeks, it never approached the numbers the Allies commanded. The paralysis of command and the breakdown of morale were not made the ultimate aim of the ... German ground and air forces, and were only incidental by-products of the traditional maneuvers of rapid encirclement and of the supporting activities of the flying artillery of the Luftwaffe, both of which had as their purpose the physical destruction of the enemy troops. The targets of the German aircraft were actually the rail lines and bridges. Blitzkrieg (German, "lightning war") is an anglicised term, describing a method of warfare, whereby an attacking force spearheaded by a dense concentration of armoured and motorized or mechanized infantry formations with close air support, breaks through the opponent's line of defense by short, fast, powerful attacks and then dislocates the defenders, using speed and … But the strategy proved less successful against the highly organized and well-armed Soviet defenses, and by 1943 Germany had been forced into a defensive war on all fronts. [106] Pier Battistelli wrote that the operational planning marked a change in German offensive thinking away from blitzkrieg and that more priority was given to brute force and fire power than to speed and manoeuvre. Eng.) The German view of themselves as the losers of the war, may be linked to the senior and experienced officers' undertaking a thorough review, studying and rewriting of all their Army doctrine and training manuals. [150], Fuller and Liddell Hart were "outsiders": Liddell Hart was unable to serve as a soldier after 1916 after being gassed on the Somme and Fuller's abrasive personality resulted in his premature retirement in 1933. Hitler strongly supported this new strategy. a really good song that was raped by poeple who dont know who the ramones are but can say the line every one knows Hitler's correspondence with his economists also reveals that his intent was to wage war in 1943–1945, when the resources of central Europe had been absorbed into the Third Reich. Definition of blitzkrieg. [102] In the following months, the Red Army constructed deep defensive belts along the paths of the planned German attack. My historical studies, the exercises carried out in England and our own experience with mock-ups had persuaded me that the tanks would never be able to produce their full effect until the other weapons on whose support they must inevitably rely were brought up to their standard of speed and of cross-country performance. Those attacks combined with Maxime Weygand's Hedgehog tactic would become the major basis for responding to blitzkrieg attacks in the future: deployment in depth, permitting enemy or "shoulders" of a penetration was essential to channelling the enemy attack, and artillery, properly employed at the shoulders, could take a heavy toll of attackers. A German friend was astonished and revulsed about the usage of the Nazi wartime word blitzkrieg in such a non-historical context. attack, onrush, onset, onslaught - (military) an offensive against an enemy (using weapons); "the attack began at dawn". Blitzkrieg is a term used to describe a method of offensive warfare designed to strike a swift, focused blow at an enemy using mobile, maneuverable forces, including armored tanks and air support. Blitzkrieg in the Second World War was a German military offensive tactic of striking a specific target quickly with a strong concentration of forces,.... See full answer below. What fuel there was went to panzer divisions, and even then they were not able to operate normally. The word, meaning "lightning war" or "lightning attack" in its strategic sense describes a series of quick and decisive short battles to deliver a knockout blow to an enemy state before it could fully mobilize. [120], Historian Victor Davis Hanson states that Blitzkrieg "played on the myth of German technological superiority and industrial dominance," adding that German successes, particularly that of its Panzer divisions were "instead predicated on the poor preparation and morale of Germany's enemies. [132] Hitler needed to avoid war until these projects were complete but his misjudgements in 1939 forced Germany into war before rearmament was complete. Such was the Vernichtungsgedanke of the Polish campaign. It has the same meaning of an intense attach, usually on the quaterback. By June 1944 the Western Allies had complete control of the air over the battlefield and their fighter-bomber aircraft were very effective at attacking ground forces. Hitler’s aim was to split the Allies in their drive toward Germany. [47] In an advance of 65 miles (105 km), captures were estimated to be "at least 25,000 prisoners and 260 guns. Subsequently, shortages soon developed in food, fuel and ammunition, severely hampering the German defenders. 487, Führung und Gefecht der verbundenen Waffen (Command and Battle of the Combined Arms), known as das Fug (1921–23) and Truppenführung (1933–34), containing standard procedures for combined-arms warfare. German legal scholars of the 1930s carefully worked out guidelines for what type of bombing was permissible under international law. See what Blitzkrieg (xxpanzerkriegerxx) has discovered on Pinterest, the world's biggest collection of ideas. [81], During the war, the Condor Legion undertook the bombing of Guernica which had a tremendous psychological effect on the populations of Europe. Although production of Luftwaffe fighter aircraft continued, they would be unable to fly for lack of fuel. [61] MacGregor and Williamson remark that Rommel's version of Blitzkrieg displayed a significantly better understanding of combined-arms warfare than that of Guderian. Definition of blitzkrieg noun in Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. "[48] Liddell Hart considered that important aspects of the operation were the extent to which Ottoman commanders were denied intelligence on the British preparations for the attack through British air superiority and air attacks on their headquarters and telephone exchanges, which paralyzed attempts to react to the rapidly deteriorating situation. "[121] Hanson also reports that at a Munich public address in November 1941, Hitler had "disowned" the concept of Blitzkrieg by calling it an "idiotic word. German Dictionaries. Panzer forces were dispersed among the three German concentrations with little emphasis on independent use, being used to create or destroy close pockets of Polish forces and seize operational-depth terrain in support of the largely un-motorized infantry which followed. Blitzkrieg Meaning In Hindi. [134], Living standards were not high in the late 1930s. [j] In 2000, Niklas Zetterling and Anders Frankson characterised only the southern pincer of the German offensive as a "classical blitzkrieg attack". The method of "terror", was denied to German aerial operations (and strategic bombing methods) by the Luftwaffe field manual, As far as the Ju 87 is concerned, it is thought the sirens were suggested to the Junkers company by, Now came the riposte - a counter-attack […] from the forest of Villers-Cotterets [...]. When a powerful country sends in all its soldiers and starts bombing a country that it is … Infiltration tactics were combined with short hurricane artillery bombardments using massed artillery, devised by Colonel Georg Bruchmüller. It happened because the German aircraft industry lacked the experience to build a long-range bomber fleet quickly, and because Hitler was insistent on the very rapid creation of a numerically large force. Civilians were not to be targeted directly, but the breakdown of production would affect their morale and will to fight. [36] Delegation of authority to local commanders increased the tempo of operations, which had great influence on the success of German armies in the early war period. Guderian's book incorporated the work of theorists such as Ludwig Ritter von Eimannsberger, whose book, The Tank War (Der Kampfwagenkrieg) (1934) gained a wide audience in the German army. [69], The concepts associated with the term blitzkrieg—deep penetrations by armour, large encirclements, and combined arms attacks—were largely dependent upon terrain and weather conditions. Central to this was the decision cycle (tempo). But lacking the ability to hit them with accuracy (only three or four Ju 87s saw action in Spain), a method of carpet bombing was chosen resulting in heavy civilian casualties. All Rights Reserved. The commander in chief, Hans von Seeckt, argued that there had been an excessive focus on encirclement and emphasized speed instead. German used blitzkrieg tactics on Poland during the lightning war. Terrain would ideally be flat, firm, unobstructed by natural barriers or fortifications, and interspersed with roads and railways. [111], In 1965, Captain Robert O'Neill, Professor of the History of War at the University of Oxford produced an example of the popular view. Blitzkrieg relied on a military force be based around light tank units supported by planes and infantry (foot soldiers). The Luftwaffe (the German air force) was officially established in February 1935, and development began on ground-attack aircraft and doctrines. [4] The term was first used in the publications of Ferdinand Otto Miksche, first in the magazine "Army Quarterly" (according [22]), later as a book "Blitzkrieg: The German Method 1939-1941",[23] which might be the first use of the term in military circles in connection to German tactics. Specialist light infantry (Stosstruppen, "storm troops") were to exploit weak spots to make gaps for larger infantry units to advance with heavier weapons and exploit the success, leaving isolated strong points to troops following up. [149], During World War I, Fuller had been a staff officer attached to the new tank corps. [154], Heinz Guderian is widely regarded as being highly influential in developing the military methods of warfare used by Germany's tank men at the start of the Second World War. [97], In July 1943 the Wehrmacht conducted Operation Zitadelle (Citadel) against a salient at Kursk that was heavily defended by Soviet troops. It is variously argued that Fuller's wartime plans and post-war writings were an inspiration or that his readership was low and German experiences during the war received more attention. Historian H.P. [100] The Battle of Kursk ended with two Soviet counter-offensives and the revival of deep operations. [125], In the 1960s, Alan Milward developed a theory of blitzkrieg economics, that Germany could not fight a long war and chose to avoid comprehensive rearmament and armed in breadth, to win quick victories. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! [14] Modern historians use the term casually as a generic description for the style of manoeuvre warfare practised by Germany during the early part of World War II, rather than as an explanation. Within the Wehrmacht (established in 1935) the command for motorised armored forces was named the Panzerwaffe in 1936. The first article (1935) deals primarily with supplies of food and materiel in wartime. The appearance of the aircraft and tank in the First World War, called an RMA, offered the German military a chance to get back to the traditional war of movement as practised by Moltke the Elder. J. P. Harris and Robert M. Citino point out that the Germans had always had a marked preference for short, decisive campaigns – but were unable to achieve short-order victories in First World War conditions. [41], Norman Stone detects early blitzkrieg operations in offensives by the French generals Charles Mangin and Marie-Eugène Debeney in 1918. In 1926 war-games and tests began at Kazan and Lipetsk in the RSFSR. [138], James Corum wrote that it was a myth that the Luftwaffe had a doctrine of terror bombing, in which civilians were attacked to break the will or aid the collapse of an enemy, by the Luftwaffe in Blitzkrieg operations. Fighter-bomber attacks on German formations made movement during daylight almost impossible. [111][153] Rather the German concept of wars of movement and concentrated force were seen in wars of Prussia and the German wars of unification. Its goal was to swiftly neutralise the Allied powers in Western Europe following the British and French declaration of war on 3 September 1939. In Doctrine and Training in the German Army 1919–1939, O'Neill wrote. In 1939–40, 45 percent of the army was 40 years old and 50 percent of the soldiers had only a few weeks' training. [10], Despite being common in German and English-language journalism during World War II, the word Blitzkrieg was never used by the Wehrmacht as an official military term, except for propaganda. [128], Overy wrote that blitzkrieg as a "coherent military and economic concept has proven a difficult strategy to defend in light of the evidence". (1937). At the basis of this...there is not only the massive use of heavy armoured divisions or cooperation between them and airplanes, but the creation of disorder in the enemy's rear by means of parachute raids. [111], At the outbreak of war, the German army had no radically new theory of war. Delegation and the encouragement of initiative aided implementation, important decisions could be taken quickly and communicated verbally or with brief written orders. In an article addressed to critics of tank warfare, he wrote "until our critics can produce some new and better method of making a successful land attack other than self-massacre, we shall continue to maintain our beliefs that tanks—properly employed, needless to say—are today the best means available for land attack." The term was commonly used in the Canadian press beginning in the summer of 1939, with usage intensifying in the month before the war began. In Operation Dynamo some 330,000 French and British troops escaped.[89]. Generally it is an attack led by a mechanized units into an enemy defense were infantry comes in afterwards to "mop up. Blitzkrieg is German for “lightning war.” As the ideas of making use of the combustible engine in a protected encasement to bring mobility back to warfare developed in the German army, Guderian was a leading proponent of the formations that would be used for this purpose. Paradoxically, from that period onward it became its weakness. blitzkrieg translation in English-Danish dictionary. ), from Proto-Germanic *blikkatjan, from PIE root *bhel- (1) "to shine, flash, burn." ("Kick, don't spatter them!"). [citation needed] Additionally, units could be halted by mud (thawing along the Eastern Front regularly slowed both sides) or extreme snow. [40], In the Sinai and Palestine campaign, operations involved some aspects of what would later be called blitzkrieg. The battle was Germany’s last chance to regain ...read more, The Battle of El Alamein marked the culmination of the World War II North African campaign between the British Empire and the German-Italian army. After blitzkrieg failed in the Soviet invasion, however, Hitler and German military leaders distanced themselves from the concept, claiming it was an invention of their enemies; Hitler himself denied he had ever used the word. https://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/blitzkrieg. Blitzkrieg is vulnerable to an enemy that is robust enough to weather the shock of the attack and that does not panic at the idea of enemy formations in its rear area. The German blitzkrieg strategy was allegedly intended, in the endeavor for world rule, to bridge the deep chasm between far-reaching wartime objectives and inadequate power potential by overwhelming the enemies, one after the other, in a series of individual, successive campaigns that would last only a short time. [136], Frieser wrote that the Heer (German pronunciation: [ˈheːɐ̯])[k] was not ready for blitzkrieg at the start of the war. Launched in poor weather against a thinly held Allied sector, it achieved surprise and initial success as Allied air power was grounded by cloud cover. On 9 September, Göring as Head of the Reich Defence Council, called for complete "employment" of living and fighting power of the national economy for the duration of the war. These concepts would guide Red Army doctrine throughout World War II. Guderian met with opposition from some in the General Staff, who were distrustful of the new weapons and who continued to view the infantry as the primary weapon of the army. Once war had begun, Hitler urged his economic experts to abandon caution and expend all available resources on the war effort but the expansion plans only gradually gained momentum in 1941. Beyond their goal of crushing Italian Axis forces, the Allies wanted to draw German troops away from ...read more, Adolf Hitler, the leader of Germany’s Nazi Party, was one of the most powerful and notorious dictators of the 20th century. Some of the military historians who consider Operation Citadel, or at least the southern pincer, as envisioning a blitzkrieg attack or state it was intended as such are: Lloyd Clark (, Many of the German participants of Operation Citadel made no mention of blitzkrieg in their characterisation of the operation. Use * for blank tiles (max 2) Advanced Search Advanced Search: Use * for blank spaces Advanced Search: Advanced Word Finder: See Also in German. The German leadership were concerned less with how to balance the civilian economy and the needs of civilian consumption but to figure out how to best prepare the economy for total war. Willmott writes that, "Many examples of the experiences and losses suffered by German formations moving up to the front are well known. The Germans quickly advanced through the forest, knocking down the trees the French thought would impede this tactic. [87][h] There was no time for such a reinforcement to be sent, for the Germans did not wait for siege artillery but reached the Meuse and achieved a breakthrough at the Battle of Sedan in three days. The Kesselschlacht 'cauldron battle' was a concentric attack on such pockets. After Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933 and made clear his intention to rearm the nation, he encouraged younger commanders like Heinz Guderian, who argued for the importance of both tanks and aircraft in this mobile approach to warfare. During the Battle of Moscow, the Red Army defeated the German Army Group Center and for the first time in the war seized the strategic initiative. bab.la arrow_drop_down bab.la - Online dictionaries, vocabulary, conjugation, grammar Toggle navigation English words for blitz include flash, lightning and thunderbolt. I am therefore asking about the meaning and appropriate usage of blitzkrieg and its implied connotations. Yellow opened with a feint conducted against the Netherlands and Belgium by two armoured corps and paratroopers. [72], The influence of air forces over forces on the ground changed significantly over the course of the Second World War. [124] Despite its later disappointments as German troops extended their lines at too great a distance, the very specter or armored Blitzkrieg forces initially proved victorious against Polish, Dutch, Belgian, and French armies early in the war. Between 1922 and 1928 Guderian wrote a number of articles concerning military movement. It was here that most losses were inflicted upon the enemy, primarily through the mass capture of prisoners and weapons. [24] After the invasion of Poland, the British press commonly used the term to describe German successes in that campaign, something Harris called "a piece of journalistic sensationalism – a buzz-word with which to label the spectacular early successes of the Germans in the Second World War". [a], It was the opposite of a doctrine. Milward described an economy positioned between a full war economy and a peacetime economy. The French were hard pressed to organise any sort of counter-attack and were continually ordered to form new defensive lines and found that German forces had already by-passed them and moved on. Among them, Guderian claimed, was Chief of the General Staff Ludwig Beck (1935–38), whom he alleged was sceptical that armoured forces could be decisive. Robert Watt (2008) wrote that blitzkrieg has little in common with Soviet deep battle. In a blitzkrieg, troops in vehicles, such as tanks, made quick surprise strikes with support from airplanes. English We are on day seven, and the dramatic events tell us that it will not be a blitzkrieg . Used by the German military and later used by Allied Forces. [59] During the Battle of France and against his staff advisor's advice, Hitler ordered that everything should be completed in a few weeks; fortunately for the Führer, Rommel and Guderian disobeyed the General Staff's orders (particularly General von Kleist) and forged ahead making quicker progress than anyone expected, and on the way, "inventing the idea of Blitzkrieg". Directive control was a fast and flexible method of command. During the First World War the German army used 1.4 million horses for transport and in the Second World War used 2.7 million horses; only ten percent of the army was motorised in 1940. The operational thinking of the German army had not changed significantly since the First World War or since the late 19th century. Pronunciation IPA: /blît͡skriːg/ Hyphenation: блиц|криг Noun… sitzkrieg: see also Sitzkrieg‎ sitzkrieg (English) Origin & history , a pun on lit=lightning war‎.Pronunciation (Amer. After the bombing of Guernica in 1937 and the Rotterdam Blitz in 1940, it was commonly assumed that terror bombing was a part of Luftwaffe doctrine. 2 : blitz … [63], Schwerpunktprinzip was a heuristic device (conceptual tool or thinking formula) used in the German army since the nineteenth century, to make decisions from tactics to strategy about priority. "Lightning war"Blitzkrieg was used by the German war machine in the 1930's where the enemy's military power is assessed and then bettered. Later, Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky (1893-1937), Georgii Isserson [ru] (1898-1976) and other members of the Red Army developed a concept of deep battle from the experience of the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–1920. Deploying a far larger contingent of soldiers and tanks than the opposition, British commander Bernard Law Montgomery launched an ...read more. [56], Guderian believed that developments in technology were required to support the theory; especially, equipping armoured divisions—tanks foremost–with wireless communications. Guderian insisted in 1933 to the high command that every tank in the German armoured force must be equipped with a radio. The centres served to field-test aircraft and armoured vehicles up to the battalion level and housed aerial- and armoured-warfare schools, through which officers rotated. These new tools, combined with an emphasis on speed, mobility, focused attacks and encirclements, enabled the Wehrmacht to turn traditional military tactics into a devastatingly modern brand of warfare. In the spring of 1940, the German army was semi-modern, in which a small number of well-equipped and "elite" divisions were offset by many second and third rate divisions". Blitzkrieg means lightning war in English. The name means "lightning war". ('There is nothing about the matter in my file of correspondence with Guderian himself except...that I thanked him...for what he said in that additional paragraph'.)". "[122] Further, successful Blitzkrieg operations were predicated on superior numbers, air-support, and were only possible for short periods of time without sufficient supply lines. When the Allies counter-attacked at Arras using the heavily armoured British Matilda I and Matilda II tanks, a brief panic was created in the German High Command. Tactically, blitzkrieg is a coordinated military effort by tanks, motorized infantry, artillery and airc… German vehicle crews and even flak units experienced great difficulty moving during daylight. [147][148] Kenneth Macksey found Liddell Hart's original letters to Guderian in the General's papers, requesting that Guderian give him credit for "impressing him" with his ideas of armoured warfare. The following day the Allies made repeated attempts to destroy the German pontoon bridges, but German fighter aircraft, ground fire and Luftwaffe flak batteries with the panzer forces destroyed 56 percent of the attacking Allied aircraft while the bridges remained intact. The Germans had not used paratroop attacks in France and only made one big drop in the Netherlands, to capture three bridges; some small glider-landings were conducted in Belgium to take bottle-necks on routes of advance before the arrival of the main force (the most renowned being the landing on Fort Eben-Emael in Belgium). 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Can not be considered limited Palestine campaign, operations involved some aspects of what would later called... Blitzkrieg Operation two and was coined for the armed forces not go into detail about tactics or that..., it simply doesn ’ t exist, at the outbreak of war also emphasized,... 2: blitz … blitz [ noun ] a sudden, vigorous attack, originally in.. Were the first to master this technique, which was titled Achtung Panzer commented that European powers. The port of Dunkirk, which is closely followed by mobilzed armour divisions associated with Nazi Germany during war... And as soon as the flight of a Famous word [ e However! Down the trees the French thought would impede this tactic armoured and motorised forces were driven back more than young. And 1928 Guderian wrote a number of articles concerning military movement ' was a attack. To German operations during the first article ( 1935 ) the command for motorised armored forces was named Panzerwaffe! Not able to operate normally to `` mop up. lacked in flexibility, they made up for number. Belgium by two armoured corps and paratroopers top and spread among tiers of command with blitzkrieg meaning in german about situation... Operational-Tactical, and interspersed with roads and German supply shortages caused delays uncovered that Hart. Of warfare used by the French army had a `` blitzkrieg '' ), that!