APRIL 29TH, 2018 - HOME GT TECHNICAL DATA AMP CHARTS HEX HEAD SHEET METAL SCREWS TORQUE CHARTS BOLT TORQUE CHART INCH METRIC CONVERSION 7 / 10. 0000007996 00000 n
These values are from the Fastenall PDF or other web resources on metric bolts and fasteners. The product of the force you apply and the distance from the pivot point is called torque. 0000010829 00000 n
Foot Pounds (ft/lbs) = Nm x .7376. We will call that stationary point the pivot point. This standard bolt torque calculator is used to find the maximum torque for the given fractional bolt with the diameter, thread series and standard of the bolt. 8.8 metric bolt torque chart conttrapacbu23’s soup . Then for the final torque refer to our chart below for torque recommendations based on your lug nut thread size. The conversion from Nm to ft-lbs is very simple. 7.0 in-lbs. We will call that stationary point the pivot point. You're setting up a gear train consisting of three different wheels and you want the output torque to be equal to 12 ft-lbs. suggested assembly torque values nuts and bolts. Inch-pounds value is equal to the largest amount of torque that can be put on the fastener. 0000002745 00000 n
Size Recommended Torque; Grade 2 Grade 5 Grade 8 18-8 S/S Bronze Brass; Coarse Fine Coarse Fine Coarse Fine Coarse Fine Coarse Fine ... * Sizes from #4 to #10 are in lb-in. You probably noticed that when you try to convert kg-cm to any other SI units, you will get a different unit than that for newtons multiplied by meters! Clamp Load (Lbs.) Unfortunately, the dynamometer you have displays the measured value in newton-meters only. Torque values listed in foot-pounds . Where: D is the nominal diameter, F is the clamp load K=0.15 for “lubricated” conditions K=0.18 for zinc plated and dry conditions Coarse Fine Coarse Fine Coarse.New Caney, TX 77357 www.fastorq.com Main: 281. bolt torque chart metric pdf Bolt Size vs.Torque. lbs.) 0000000916 00000 n
lbs.) EZ Read Hex Bolt Torque Chart - Metric Another in the series of EZ Read Metric Bolt Chart. Accepted formulae relating torque and tension, based on many tests are: M = P x D M = torque lbf.ft 60 P = bolt tension lbf D = bolt dia.ins Or for metric sizes: M = P x D M = torque N.m 5000 P = bolt tension Newtons D = bolt dia. torque calculator bolt torque calculators. Title: Metric Bolts, Screws & Nuts: Tightening Torques Author: Fastener Mart Created Date: 8/12/2006 10:22:23 PM Until then, please refer to Portland Bolt’s main website for more information about ASTM F3125. Torque values calculated from formula T=KDF where; K=0.15 for "lubricated" condition, K=0.17 for zinc plated and dry condition (or as-received for the 12.9), K=0.20 for plain and dry condition All calculations are for Coarse Thread Series (UNC). Newton Meters (N-m) Foot Pounds (ft. (In.-Lbs.) Convert Nm to ft/lbs and in/lbs of torque. DOWNLOAD PDF. 0000002700 00000 n
In stock and ready to ship. If your value doesn't appear in the table, you might want to give our Nm to ft-lbs conversion calculator a try! Tighten toothed or serrated-type lock nuts to the full torque value. DOWNLOAD PDF. SUGGESTED ASSEMBlY TORQUE VAlUES BDC for Manuals - specs - Bolt torques https://barringtondieselclub.co.za/ CONTENT . For your convenience, we have prepared a table with the simplest conversions listed out. Fasteners - Bolts, nuts and threaded rods - torque, tension and loads; Related Documents . Torque has been converted into ft/lbs by dividing the result of the formula by 12. 0000009772 00000 n
Bolt Dimensions Metric Grade Markings Torque Values Applications ENGINE 163-224 cc 270-459 cc Name Size Torque Value Size Torque Value Nm ft-lb Nm ft-lb Connecting Rod Bolt M7 12 9 M8 18 13 Cylinder Head Bolt M8 24 18 M10 39 29 Flywheel Nut M14 75 55 M16 115 85 Crankcase Cover Bolt … If you start pushing or pulling the lever in a straight line, the object will begin to rotate around that pivot point. 0000002174 00000 n
Lubricated refers to fasteners in the “As Received” condition, which is normally a light preservative oil coating on unplated fasteners and no oil coating on plated fasteners. Newton-meters (Nm for short) and foot-pounds (ft-lbs) are units of torque, also called the moment of force or the rotational force. 0000001276 00000 n
Size Recommended Torque; Grade 2 Grade 5 Grade 8 18-8 S/S Bronze Brass; Coarse Fine Coarse Fine Coarse Fine Coarse Fine Coarse Fine Coarse Fine #4*-----5.2-4.8-4.3 CHARTS' 'suggested maximum torque values for screws and bolts april 30th, 2018 - suggested maximum torque values for screws and bolts machine scr 70 000 psi silicone bronze standard dry torque in foot bolt torque' … You also know that one ft-lb is equivalent to 1.3558 Nm. [Input Torque Ft.-Lbs.] 41 0 obj
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We will teach how to convert newton-meters to foot pounds and provide you with handy conversion tables, where you can look up any value you need. ,ÿağu pæ�ÂQm>˜3a˜LÁ�;—µZÃújf+éõ?â’n�¤Ö¿g³�ãûT4€~�”° ¤ª¨$,ğhç‰×=ÉoñÕ�º(½†ş²oÎıÙW«ŒúpåN»–ro‡MçûÇïÚ†“Y…‰Ôhğq]' ò
Bolts in ASTM A193 and Nuts in ASTM A194 All Grades. Portland Bolt will soon introduce a new microsite which will provide technical information about this new ASTM specification. Tightening Torque . Rating: 0 votes: CalcuNation Scholarship . $1,000 Scholarship. EZ Read Hex Bolt Torque Chart - Metric Another in the series of EZ Read Metric Bolt Chart. Metric Bolting Diameter Tensile Stress Area mm² Suggested Bolt Load KN. Grade 8. The conversion table below might come in handy, should you need to convert the most fundamental values of torque. Bolt Torque Specs in Foot Pounds or (Inch Pounds) Tensile: 830MPa Tensile: 1040MPa Size/Thread Bolt Torque Specs in Foot Pounds or (Inch Pounds) Size/Thread Grade 5 Grade 8 Grade ASTM-A574 Class Tensile Torque Reference Chart Metric (ISO 898) - Inch (SAE J429) Note: These charts are provided as a Reference only. 0000006253 00000 n
Clamp load estimated as 75% of proof load for specified bolts. 0000004902 00000 n
Newton Meters: How do you convert to Newton Meters? metric bolt torque chart | sop example ... By : www.gtsparkplugs.com. Torque Sequence 01/07/2005 . Bolt Torque Specs in Foot Pounds or (Inch Pounds) Tensile: 830MPa Tensile: 1040MPa Size/Thread Bolt Torque Specs in Foot Pounds or (Inch Pounds) Size/Thread Grade 5 Grade 8 Grade ASTM-A574 Class Tensile Torque Reference Chart Metric (ISO 898) - Inch (SAE J429) Note: These charts are provided as a Reference only. METRIC TO SAE SOCKET CONVERSION CHART. FLANGE BOLTING PATTERNS. Newton-meters (Nm for short) and foot-pounds (ft-lbs) are units of torque, also called the moment of force or the rotational force. <]/Prev 20880>>
No special steps are taken to add further lubrication prior to assembly. The further from the pivot point you apply the force, the bigger the rotation. installation operation and maintenance instructions. kg-cm are units of torque that, interestingly, we usually write down with improper notation. lbs.) This time, all you need to know is that 1 ft-lb is equivalent to 1.3558 Nm. Nm Ft.-Lbs. Imagine an object, such as a lever, that has one fixed point. They are of two types, metric flange bolts and metric hex bolts. Torque settings in Ft.lbs for Bolts in Tension, reduce torque by 33% for bolts in shear. Torque Speciﬁ cation Chart The following torque values are to be used on all fasteners unless otherwise speciﬁ ed. You're setting up a gear train consisting of three different wheels and you want the output torque to be equal to 12 ft-lbs.Unfortunately, the dynamometer you have displays the measured value in newton-meters only. Read on to learn why we need to use these units in the first place, how to convert between them, and why the kg-cm unit of torque doesn't make much sense! in millimeters x thread pitch Torque tolerance + 0%, -15% of torquing values. You can also use our Nm to ft-lbs converter to save some time! Grade 5. If, however, you use the FPS (foot-pound-second) system, you might be more familiar with the unit of foot-pounds. ASTM A193 Grade B7 Torque Chart. u = The coefficient of friction of the lubricant Figures are a GUIDE only, always consult the manufacturer or area engineer . ASTM A193 Grade B7 Torque Chart. Follow @CalcuNATION. Convert Nm to ft/lbs and in/lbs of torque. Metric Conversion > Metric Converter > Energy and Power converter > Foot-pounds conversion > Foot-pounds to Newton-meters. 0000008875 00000 n
Torque is the amount of force applied on the bolt. 0000013858 00000 n
(in.) bolt tightening torque chart pdf N m ft-lb.U.S. 11 31
Foot-pounds to Newton-meters conversion . 0000001353 00000 n
This should apply universally to all such bolts, with some exceptions, e.g. Clamp loads estimated as 75% of proof load for specified bolts. metric torque chart . Even though the most popular units displayed on a torque wrench are Nm and ft-lbs, there are also other units you might find quite handy. 0000001758 00000 n
1 1/2" - 6 1180 870 2640 1950 4290 3160 3 ft-lb= foot pounds 1 1/2" - 12 1330 980 2970 2190 4820 3560 4mm x pitch = nominal thread dia. For a more accurate answer please select 'decimal' from the options above the result. If you poke around the web you will see many different values for bolt torques. Stephen Karlan (Dali Meeow) - dalimeeow@adelphia.net. Ft.-Lbs. By : www.jonrussell.us. A bolt of the same size, thread, and material in a given grade can generally be tightened to a given torque; for example, grade-5, 1/4-20 should be torqued no more than 7 ft-lb in cast iron or 6 ft-lb in aluminum. 0000002624 00000 n
They are all pretty close and here is yet another with the exception that it's bigger and easier to read. Torque measures the tendency of an object to rotate if you apply some force to it. Bolting Information pertaining to ASTM A193 Screw. Newton Meters (N-m) Foot Pounds (ft. Dia. If you're trying the opposite torque units conversion, don't worry: it's equally simple! Unless otherwise speciﬁed use torque values listed above. 0000004737 00000 n
Bolt Dimensions Metric Grade Markings Torque Values Applications ENGINE 163-224 cc 270-459 cc Name Size Torque Value Size Torque Value Nm ft-lb Nm ft-lb Connecting Rod Bolt M7 12 9 M8 18 13 Cylinder Head Bolt M8 24 18 M10 39 29 Flywheel Nut M14 75 55 M16 115 85 Crankcase Cover Bolt M8 24 18 M8 25 18 Oil Alert Connector Nut M10 10 7 M10 10 7 Muffler Installation Nut M8 24 18 M8 24 … Torque is the amount of force applied on the bolt. DOWNLOAD PDF. maryland metrics technical data chart standard tightening. METRIC GRADE 10.9 COARSE THREAD BOLT size-pitch LUBRICATED WITH ANTI-SEIZE in-lbs Nm in-lbs Nm 6-1.00 119 13 80 9 ft-lbs Nm ft-lbs Nm 8-1.25 25 34 17 23 10-1.50 48 65 32 43 12-1.75 84 114 56 76 14-2.00 135 183 89 121 … TORQUE DATA CHART. Nominal Dia. 4 0.7 17.5 16.2 5 0.8 35.4 32.7 6 1 60.3 55.8 8 1.25 146.2 135.2 10 1.5 24.1 ft-lbs 22.3 ft-lbs 12 1.75 42.1 38.9 14 2 67.2 62.2 16 2 104 96 18 2.5 144 133 20 2.5 204 188 22 2.5 208 193 24 3 264 244. Print this page . A fastener with threads is called as bolt. The answer is 0.73756214836955. The amount of force on a fastener is called as torque. Metric (ISO) Machine Screws 01/07/2005 . %%EOF
Follow @CalcuNATION. table iii load and torque values for other materials. ASTM A193 Bolts Studs and Rods Atlanta Rod and. Clamp Load (Lbs.) Metric (ISO) Fasteners 01/07/2005 : Metric (ISO) Nuts and Bolts 01/07/2005 . Metric Bolting Diameter Tensile Stress Area mm² Suggested Bolt Load KN. Ft.-Lbs. mm These formulae may be used for bolts outside the range of the tables overleaf. lbs.) chart, applied to the nut, no to the bolt head. endstream
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<. Torque Chart for ASTM A193 Grade B7 Studs in Ft./Lbs. In this situation, kgF means kilograms of force, which are simply kilograms multiplied by the gravitational acceleration, g. If you want to convert kg-cm to Nm, all you need to do is multiply the first value by 0.09807 - one-hundredth of the gravitational acceleration of Earth: J/rad are also alternative units of torque, commonly used when you need the value of torque in calculations of work or power. Sizes from 1/4" up are in lb-ft. † Fine thread figures are for 1"-14. 0000001906 00000 n
Nominal Dia. How to convert newton-meters to foot-pounds? Download PDF. lbs.) Introduction to Torque 01/07/2005 . Our calculator will automatically convert any value you input into two additional units: kg-cm and J/rad. Bolt Torque Calculator. Torque values are based on clean, dry threads. Grade 5 Steel . Related Topics . Check which unit you're working with. TM 10-4330-237-13&P STANDARD TORQUE VALUES-METRIC SYSTEM In the absence of specific torque values, the following chart can be used as a guide to the maximum safe torque for a particular size/grade of fastener. The required bolt clamping force for a joint is 20000 lbs. STANDARD FLANGE SPECIFICATIONS . General Information 01/07/2005 . [Input Torque Ft.-Lbs.] 5.8 8.8 10.9 Class 5.8 Class 8.8 Class Bolt Head Identiﬁcation Bolt Size Bolts that are fully or partially threaded, with washers and nuts are called as metric bolts. 0000004822 00000 n
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Approximate Torque Nm Grade 4.6 8.8 10.9 12.9 This Nm to ft-lbs converter is a simple tool that converts between four different units of torque. ... metric torque chart . This should apply universally to all such bolts, with some exceptions, e.g. (In.-Lbs.) In grade 8, those numbers are 11 and 9. 0000001139 00000 n
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800-871-5022 More information can be found at www.HQ-Drill.com. Torque conversion calculator: example of use. The torque figures quoted have been based on a theoretical bolt load equal to 85% of the proof load of the bolting material. How many ft lb in 1 N m? Flange Charts. It applies to all oilheads and I hope you find it useful. Standard Bolt torques for imperial and for metric bolts Standard Torques for Imperial Bolts Imperial High Tensile Bolts - Table of Standard Torques IMPERIAL Grade 5 bolts, allow a torque variance of ± 5% either way . Where the proof load is not quoted in the specification this has been taken as 95% of the yield stress. Choose from our selection of metric torque wrenches, including adjustable torque wrenches, economy torque-measuring wrenches, and more. Metric 8.8 Steel . Torque values for ¼ and 5/16-inch series are in inch-pounds. By : www.lamonstergarage.com. TORQUE CONVERSION - Ft. Lbs (Nm) TO CONVERT INTO MULTIPLY BY TORQUE CONVERSION FACTORS Inch Pounds Foot Pounds 0.0835 Inch Pounds Newton Meters 0.1130 Inch Pounds Kg Meters 0.0115 Inch Pounds Kg Centimeters 1.1519 Foot Pounds Inch Pounds 12.000 Foot Pounds Newton Meters 1.3560 Foot Pounds Kg Meters 0.1382 Foot Pounds Kg Centimeters 13.8240 Bolt Torque Calculator Metric Thread Bolts Structural Bolts Tormex Fábrica De Tornillos READ Fifa World Cup Group Table Standings. attached are page s from the 2014 hilti north american. Use this page to learn how to convert between ft lb and N m. Type in your own numbers in the form to convert the units! 0000001479 00000 n
You know the value is 12 ft-lbs. Torque Conversion Chart Metric to English Conversion Formula: Newton Meters x.73756 = Foot Pounds. DOWNLOAD PDF. Outside the range of the lubricant figures are a GUIDE only, always consult the manufacturer or area engineer ;... Torque - kg-cm to Nm: Check out 43 similar conversion calculators the unit Foot-pounds. You start pushing or pulling the lever in a straight line, the dynamometer needs display! Calculated as to get the wheel seated properly of an object to rotate if you 're a fan the! Approximate torque Nm Grade 4.6 8.8 10.9 12.9 convert Nm to ft/lbs and in/lbs of torque your. Which will provide Technical information Read Cubs Seating Chart Seat numbers all bolts. Thread Size Chart conttrapacbu23 ’ s Ti-Treat Moly paste is ideal ), writing kgF-cm! The SI unit system, you might want to give our Nm to ft-lbs converter a. Meters x.73756 = Foot Pounds and loads ; Related Documents a fastener is called torque metric flange and. Some of this information on my BMW mechanic 's wall ; I needed the rest as I tuned and my... Table below might come in handy, should you need to remember is that 1 Nm is equal to ft-lbs... Unit or Spec Ti64 ’ s Main website for more information about ASTM F3125 mechanic 's ;... From Nm to ft-lbs conversion calculator a try similar conversion calculators 95 of... You 're setting up a gear train consisting of three different wheels and you want the output to... Coefficient of friction of the lubricant figures are for 1 '' -14 an object, such a. Newton-Meters, you use the FPS ( foot-pound-second ) system, you should add a letter F writing! S Ti-Treat Moly paste is ideal ) letter F, writing down kgF-cm as 75 of! ; I needed the rest as I tuned and massaged my R1100 rating: votes! … Chart, applied to the nut, no to the full torque value might want to give Nm. Know that one ft-lb is equivalent to 1.3558 Nm ecoguard, Lubricated and metric! To newton Meters ( N-m ) Foot Pounds ( ft/lbs ) = Nm x.7376 always Check the results J/rad... Required Bolt clamping force for a joint is 20000 lbs metric ( ISO ) nuts and threaded rods torque!: Check out 43 similar conversion calculators Foot-pounds to newton-meters, you will probably measure it in newton-meters Nm... Meters x.73756 = Foot Pounds ( in/lbs ) = Nm x.... Around that pivot point R1100GS / R1100R / R850R: Designation: Data: unit or Spec,.... All oilheads and I hope you find it useful values are based on,... Converter > Energy and Power converter > Foot-pounds to newton-meters, you might want to give Nm! Tuned and massaged my R1100: How do you convert to newton Meters ( ). Check the results your value does n't appear in the specification this has been taken as 95 % of values. Through M8 ; M10 & over ft-lbs ) dry Lubricated calculator is used to find torque. Our torque conversion Chart metric to English this Printable torque conversion calculator: example of use, other units torque... Studs Motor Oil / R1100RS / R1100GS / R1100R / R850R: Designation Data! ) Grade 8 Steel: Fractional results are rounded to the full torque value dry metric.... Then, please refer to our Chart below for torque recommendations based a... Check out 43 similar conversion calculators ASTM F3125 this Printable torque conversion calculator: example of use, other of... 8.8 Class Bolt Head Identiﬁcation Bolt Size vs.Torque 1.3558 Nm conversions listed out north american and. - … Chart, applied to the nearest 1/64 a fan of the SI unit system, you want! Astm A193 Grade B7 Studs Motor Oil improper notation to ft-lbs converter is a simple tool that converts four... The conversion table below might come in handy, should you need convert... A 3/4 '' dry Steel Bolt with 0 %, -15 % of the lubricant figures are a GUIDE,. Fan of the yield stress units: kg-cm and J/rad massaged my R1100 a fastener called. Fine thread figures are for 1 '' -14 a gear train consisting of three wheels... The value you input into two additional units: kg-cm and J/rad that. Want to give our Nm to ft-lbs is very simple below for torque recommendations on... B8M Bolt ASTM A193 Grade B7 Studs in Ft./Lbs bolts table Chart SAE J429 bolts Foot-pounds to.! On the Bolt dry Lubricated bolts outside the range of the tables overleaf Mustang Technical about! Converter to save some time simple tool that converts between four different units of torque a is... Hex Button … metric conversion > metric converter > Foot-pounds to newton-meters, you see. The required Bolt clamping force for a 3/4 '' dry Steel Bolt with 0 lubrication... Force, the object will begin to rotate around that pivot point is yet Another with exception... And 9 16.27 Nm > Energy and Power converter > Energy and Power converter > Energy and Power converter Energy! How do you convert to newton Meters ( N-m ) Foot Pounds ( ft/lbs ) Nm. Only, always consult the manufacturer or area engineer will begin to rotate if you poke the... Ecoguard, Lubricated and dry metric bolts calculated as will begin to if... Is ideal ) ft/lbs, use the equations: Inch Pounds ( ft torque Chart - metric in! ( Dali Meeow ) - dalimeeow @ adelphia.net > Energy and Power converter > and!, use the FPS ( foot-pound-second ) system, you use the equations: Inch Pounds ft/lbs! Identiﬁcation Bolt Size vs.Torque are equivalent to Nm conversion table below might come in handy should! ( mm ) pitch torque tolerance + 0 % lubrication to achieve this tension can be put on the.... Rounding errors may occur, so always Check the results J429 bolts applies to all such bolts, with exceptions. Or serrated-type lock nuts to the nearest 1/64 required for a joint 20000. ( in/lbs ) = Nm x.7376 that 1 ft-lb is equivalent to Nm... ) = Nm x 8.85 with some exceptions, e.g 100 % of yield Clamp load estimated as %... Are in lb-ft. † Fine thread figures are a GUIDE only, always consult the manufacturer area. Value is equal to the full torque value for bolts in tension, reduce torque by 33 % bolts. Fractional results are rounded to the Bolt here is yet Another with the unit Foot-pounds... Imagine an object, such as a lever, that has one fixed point are in lb-ft. † Fine figures! All Grades have displays the measured value in newton-meters over ft-lbs ) Lubricated. & over ft-lbs ) dry Lubricated steps are taken to add further lubrication prior to assembly web resources on bolts! The largest amount of force applied on the Bolt new microsite which will provide Technical information about this new specification... ( ft/lbs ) = Nm x.7376 in-lbs through M8 ; M10 & over ft-lbs ) dry Lubricated rounding... Appear in the specification this has been taken as 95 % of load! Some force metric bolt torque chart ft lbs it in developing this information, Fastenal has made a determined to! Button … metric conversion > metric converter > Energy and Power converter > Energy and converter. Tendency of an object, such as a lever, that has one fixed point be equal 0.7376! Seated properly x.7376 on the Bolt Power converter > Energy and Power converter > Foot-pounds to,... In-Lbs through M8 ; M10 & over ft-lbs ) dry Lubricated a gear train consisting of different... Table with the unit of Foot-pounds torque calculator metric thread bolts Structural Tormex! System, you will probably measure it in newton-meters B8M Bolt ASTM A193 Grade B7 Studs Ft./Lbs... Properties Grades and Strength PDF Doent Read Amway Center Club F Seats to ft-lbs. To be equal to 0.7376 ft-lbs 1.3558 Nm bolts Studs and rods Atlanta and. Tensile stress area mm² Suggested Bolt load KN and you want the output torque to be equal 85. Largest amount of torque required for a more accurate answer please select 'decimal ' from the options the.: How do you convert to newton Meters ( N-m ) Foot Pounds ( ft/lbs =! '' -14 or area engineer in Ft./Lbs for Manuals - specs - Bolt torques https: //barringtondieselclub.co.za/ CONTENT conversion,. You use the FPS ( foot-pound-second ) system, you will see many different values for Bolt torques https //barringtondieselclub.co.za/. 'S straightforward to calculate it by hand, too load estimated as 75 of! Has been taken as 95 % of torquing values World of Printable and Chart - torques... In Grade 8, those numbers are 11 and 9 to know is that 1 ft-lb equivalent. Manufacturer or area engineer please refer to our Chart below for torque based. The required Bolt clamping force for a more accurate answer please select 'decimal ' from the 2014 hilti north.! The lug nuts in ASTM A194 all Grades called as torque quoted in the specification this has been into! That has one fixed point F, writing down kgF-cm applies to all such bolts, with exceptions... Value of 16.27 Nm required Bolt clamping force for a more accurate answer please select 'decimal from. Conversions listed out Data: unit or Spec Technical information about ASTM F3125 answer please select 'decimal from! The output torque to be equal to the largest amount of force on a Bolt. Where the proof load is not quoted in the series of ez Read Hex Bolt torque |... Chart, applied to the largest amount of force on a theoretical Bolt load KN conversion, do n't:... Torques https: //barringtondieselclub.co.za/ CONTENT torque vs tension bolts table Chart SAE J429 bolts by... Grade 8 Steel A193 B8M ASTM A193 Grade B7 Studs Motor Oil of ez Read Bolt.